What is Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium Bicarbonate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaHCO3. It is found in nature in the form of nahcolite minerals, and dissolved in many mineral springs across the world. Similarly, another name for it is baking soda or cooking soda, and sometimes as bicarbonate of soda. Mankind use Baking soda from as early as the ancient Egyptian civilization. They used to use a mineral called natron, which consisted of sodium bicarbonate, for cleansing purposes. It was, however, industrially produced starting from 1846, by two New York bakers, who established a factory to develop baking soda from sodium carbonate and carbon dioxide. Moreover, pure product is obtained from the reaction of sodium carbonate, water and carbon dioxide.
General Properties of Sodium Bicarbonate are:
1. It is odourless
2. Has a slightly salty, alkaline taste
3. It is neither flammable nor explosive
4. It is soluble in water
5. It is non volatile too
Commercially prepared by Solvay process and involves the reaction of sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide in water. Then to obtain a relatively low purity product, it uses calcium carbonate as the carbon dioxide source and uses the resultant calcium oxide to recover the ammonia from the ammonium chloride.
The first reaction of the process is as indicated below:
NaCl + CO2 + NH3 + H2O → NaHCO3 + NH4Cl (I)
The Carbon dioxide is passed through a concentrated aqueous solution of sodium chloride and ammonia. This reaction is carried out in two packed towers.
The Uses of Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate has a wide range of applications, which include its use in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and industrial applications. It can be as a pH regulator, for the release of CO2 and as a mild abrasive. The following are the applications of Sodium bicarbonate in various industries.
Sodium Bicarbonate, in cooking, is as a leavening agent as it reacts with acidic components in batters, then releasing carbon dioxide, which causes the expansion of the batter and forms the characteristic texture and grain in baked and fried foods. Also, in cuisines to tenderise meats. Then, In fried foods to enhance the crispness.
Sodium bicarbonate can be as a cleansing agent to remove surface rust, and also to remove tarnish from silver. Aside those, in washing clothes it is replacement to softener.
It is used as a bio pesticide as it can control the growth of fungus. Additionally, in the military/army to reduce the spread of white phosphorus from incendiary bullets inside an afflicted soldier’s wounds. Another use is to extinguish small grease or electrical fires by being thrown over the fire. Moreover, cattle feed supplement is also one of its uses as it acts as a buffering agent. Furthermore it is in toothpastes and mouthwashes for better whitening and plaque removal, and in wet and dry deodorants, in shampoos, etc.